ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT

ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT

ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT

Gastritis is the inflammation of the gastric mucosa which may be acute or chronic. Inflammation of the lining of the stomach. This article will reviews the two types of gastritis. "ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT"

 

GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT

ACUTE GASTRITIS

This is an active inflammation and erosion of the gastric mucosa of sudden onset and sometimes of violent onset and brief duration

Classification of Acute Gastritis

  1. Acute Erosive Gastritis
  2. Acute Corrosive Gastritis

Etiology of Acute Erosive Gastritis

Below are causes of erosive gastritis

  • Acute alcoholism
  • Ingestion of drugs especially Aspirin
  • Hot spice food
  • Allergenic foods such as milk, egg and shell fish
  • Decomposed tinned meat
  • Bacteria or toxin as in food poisoning
  • Acute illness as viral infections and Uraemia

Etiology of Acute Corrosive(Burning) Gastritis

Below are causes of Corrosive gastritis

  • Strong ingestion of strong acid or alkali iodine, potassium-permanganate
  • Salts of heavy metals such as Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) and Mercury oxide (Hg2O)

Pathophysiology

Usually in acute erosive gastritis there is patches of intense hyperaemia, excess mucus, occasional mucosal hemorrhage and erosions.

In acute corrosive gastritis there is necrosis(localized death of living tissue), membrane formation and subsequent inflammatory reaction. There may also be haemorrhages, ulceration and perforation.

 

"ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT"

 

Clinical Features (Erosive Gastritis)

  • Malaise
  • Anorexia
  • Nausea
  • Epigastric pressure which a feeling of fullness
  • Haematemesis especially if Aspirin is responsible for the gastritis
  • Headache
  • Vertigo (feeling of going round or rotation)
  • Vomiting which may offer temporal relief of gastric symptoms
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Clinical features in Corrosive Gastritis

This strictly depends on the nature and amount of substance swallowed. Corrosion of the lips, tongue, mouth and Pharynx. There is oesaphagitis with pain disphagia, tender abdomen with severe gastric pain haematemesis, collapse with tachycardia

Diagnosis

Acute erosive gastritis can be diagnosed by signs, symptoms and detection of causative agent where possible . That of Corrosive is much easier as evidence of ingestion of a corrosive agent on the lips and the mouth is present. However the following general diagnostic procedure are employed:

  • X-ray with barium mill
  • Gastroscopy
  • Stool analysis for occult blood (Don't eat meat for it contains iron and iron is being looked for in this analysis)

 

"ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT"

 

Treatment of Acute Erosive Gastritis (Acute Gastritis Treatment)

Erosive gastritis is self limiting as gastric mucosa turns over 36hourly unless the precipitating factor continues to exist. Withdraw the provocating agent such as alcohol or aspirin.

Control nausea and vomiting with drugs e.g. prochlorplazine (Stematil) 12.5-25mg or give phenegan 25 to 50mg. We have to check pain i.e Control pain due to irritation like antacid like, gellucil, mag tricilicate, aluminum hydroxide, antacid.

Give Strong analgesics like pethidine 50-100mg, 6-8hourly for the severe pain. You can give blood transfusion in severe hemorrhage.

Treatment of Corrosive Gastritis (Acute Gastritis Treatment)

Treatment must be prompt and directed and directed towards relieving initial collapse and removing or neutralizing the offending agent by gentile use of the stomach tube or an antidote.

The patient would be kept on hospital management. Gove blood or plasma and other parentral fluid as may be necessary which hold food within the first few days .

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Pethidine injection 50-100mg, 6-8hourly for severe pain. Initiate surgical intervention should gastric perforation occur

 

Nursing Care

  • Ensure adequate bed rest
  • Observation for signs of electrolyte imbalance, signs and collapse, signs of shock etc
  • Relief pain
  • Gastric aspiration where possible
  • Ensure adequate rehydration
  • Nutrition - restrict food at early days, avoid alcohol, spices and coffee. Mainly a bland diet is given.
  • Education
  • Give adequate emotion support - involve the family in his care
  • Administer drugs as asked and observe for side effect and good effect

 

"ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT"

 

CHRONIC GASTRITIS

This term describes a Chronic inflammatory reaction of gastric mucosa.

Etiology of Chronic Gastritis

Etiology is obscure (unknown) although it is frequently seen in such conditions as gastric cacinoma , pernicious anaemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic Asa injection, pituitary and adrenal insufficiencies and thyroid disease.

Pathophysiology

Three successive stages have been identified in the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis

  • Chronic Superficial Gastritis in which the gastric mucosa is heavily infiltrated with inflammatory cells (Leucocytes, Neutrophils and Macrophages)
  • Chronic atrophic gastritis: In addition to infiltration, there is atrophy of the mucosal gland
  • Gastric atrophy: There is thin mucosa with little or no inflammatory cell.

There is mucosal necrosis, inflammation, loss of chief and parietal cell and progressive atrophy with patchy area of hyperplexia. Excessive formation of cell causing increase in the size of organ.

Clinical Manifestations

It is usually asymptomatic though patient may have various symptoms such as: constant mild nausea, pain or discomfort on eating, dull epigastic burning and occult bleeding.

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Diagnosis

Laboratory finding for Anaemia, hypo chlorhydra (low secretion of hydrachlaic acid) or Achlorhydra (absence of HCl).

Stool for analysis for occult blood

For confirmatory diagnosis: Mucosal biopsy confirms diagnosis.

Treatment (Chronic Gastritis Treatment)

No specific treatment except that of the underline cause i.e if you treat e.g. pernicious anaemia , the gastritis will stop

Nursing Care

The patient would be nursed as a patient of Acute Gastritis

Complication

Complication is the same as that of corrosive gastritis

  • Peptic ulcer
  • Malignant changes
  • Perforation of the stomach

 

"ACUTE GASTRITIS TREATMENT AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS TREATMENT"

 

 

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