MALARIA MEDICATION / MALARIA TREATMENT

MALARIA MEDICATION / MALARIA TREATMENT (MALARIA - "the silent killer") Introduction ••Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by a parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. It is preventable and curable. ••In 2017 there were about 219 million cases in 87 countries and estimated number of deaths stood at 435,000. •• African regions account for about 92% of these malaria cases and about 93% of these deaths •• Global funding for malaria control and elimination is increasing. Key Facts •• Malaria is transmitted through the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito •• Infected female Anopheles mosquito injects the parasite called Plasmodium into the blood stream of the individual involved. •• There are many species of Plasmodium that causes malaria and they include - Plasmodium falciparum - Plasmodium vivax - Plasmodium ovale - Plasmodium malariae - Plasmodium knowlesi Of these five Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax is the most severe and pose the greatest risk .Plasmodium falciparum infection is common in African and Asian continents while Plasmodium vivax infection is common in South American countries. "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" Symptoms and Signs seen in Malaria In individuals who haven't developed immunity to malaria yet, complaints starts 10-15 days after bite from infected female Anopheles mosquito. These symptoms include - Fever - Headache - Chills - Body weakness - Bitter taste - Feeling of unwell - Deep yellowish urine colouration In children the symptoms might be very severe and can lead to the following- Severe anemia ( reduced blood levels) - Respiratory difficulty ( fast breathing, shortness of breath) - metabolic and electrolyte imbalance - Cerebral malaria manifesting as coma - Multiple organ failure Symptoms might be severe in adults as well especially the elderly Symptoms of malaria is less severe in people who have developed immunity to malaria "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" Who is at Risk ? In 2017 almost the world's population were at risk of contracting malaria and most deaths occurred in Sub Saharan Africa. Nonetheless some people are at increased risks than others and they include the following categories of people •• Infants •• Children under the ages of five •• Pregnant women •• People living with HIV/ AIDS •• Mobile travellers •• Non- immune individuals ``Elderly National malaria control programmes should make sure to protect and treat these individuals at risk "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" Disease Burden According to the world malaria report of November 2018 •• There were about 219 million people affected by malaria in 2017 •• Sub saharan Africa accountee for 92% of these cases •• Five countries accounts for more than half of these cases; Nigeria 25% , Congo DR 14% , Mozambique 5%,India 4% ,Uganda 4% ••. Children under the ages of five are mostly affected Transmission of Malaria - Malaria is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquito . - The mosquito bites usually occur between evening times and daybreak - Female Anopheles mosquito usually lay their eggs on fresh water, which hatch into larva and then into young mosquitoes. The female Anopheles mosquito needs to suck blood to nurture it's eggs - To transmit malaria female Anopheles mosquito bites an infected person and takes up the blood containing the parasite into it's system. The parasite continue to develop in the mosquito and when the mosquito bites another person it injects the already developed parasite into this individual "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" Prevention of Malaria Control of vectors is the most effective way of malaria prevention. This can be achieved through the following ways. (1) Use of insecticide treated mosquito nets -this is one of the effective way of prevention. It is not expensive and it helps by providing a physical barrier to the vector coming in contact with it's prey (2) By indoor and outdoor spraying using insecticides (3) By clearing of bushes around the house (4) By discarding empty cans that might retain water. This helps to eliminate breeding places for mosquitoes (5) By prompt treatment of all infected individuals Antimalarial Medications For Prevention WHO recommends the following 1. Travellers to endemic areas should start preventive therapy prior to traveling to the area to help suppress the blood stages of malaria 2. Pregnant women should start Intermittent preventive therapy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine after the first trimester. 3. Infants and children under the ages of five should be given sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria 4. Seasonal treatment during the high transmission period with amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine should be instituted in the under-five. "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" Diagnosis and Treatment World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all cases of suspected malaria cases should be confirmed using parasite based diagnostic tests. The test is available within thirty minutes or less Treatment based on symptoms can be instituted when these tests are not available. Recommended treatment for Plasmodium falciparum is artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) Vaccine For Malaria WHO in collaboration with affected countries, GSK, PATH and other non profit organization works currently on developing a vaccine for malaria. These vaccines has been developed and the are effective in protecting against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in susceptible individuals especially in young children. The vaccine was introduced in 2019 and is currently being administered in three pilot countries- Ghana, Kenya and Drewpy Malawi "Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment" QUESTION : WHY DOES INDIVIDUALS WITH AS GENOTYPE TOLERATE MALARIA BETTER THAN INDIVIDUALS WITH AA GENOTYPE ? [: Answer : During it's life cycle in human being, Malaria parasite develops inside the red blood cells. For this development to progress normally conditions inside the red blood cells must be conducive enough. In people with Genotype AA the condition in the red blood cells is very condusive so the malaria parasite completes it's development; more parasites are produced and released and they go on to affect other red blood cells In people with Genotype AS the condition in the red blood cells is not conducive enough for further development of the malaria parasite so the following might occur either (1) the malaria parasite inside the red blood cells commits suicide and die or (2) the red blood cells rupture and release the incompletely developed parasites which later die In Genotype AS otherwise known as sickle cell trait transport of oxygen is not efficient so most organisms like malaria parasite has difficulty reproducing normally Aside this Genotype AS is not better than Genotype AA One more thing people with Genotype AS are more susceptible to Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) "Malaria Medication Malaria Treatment"

MALARIA MEDICATION / MALARIA TREATMENT (MALARIA - "the silent killer")

Introduction

  • •Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by a parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. It is preventable and curable.
  • •In 2017 there were about 219 million cases in 87 countries and estimated number of deaths stood at 435,000.
  • • African regions account for about 92% of these malaria cases and about 93% of these deaths
  • • Global funding for malaria control and elimination is increasing.

 

Key Facts

  • • Malaria is transmitted through the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito
  • • Infected female Anopheles mosquito injects the parasite called Plasmodium into the blood stream of the individual involved.
  • • There are many species of Plasmodium that causes malaria and they include - Plasmodium falciparum

- Plasmodium vivax

- Plasmodium ovale

- Plasmodium malariae

- Plasmodium knowlesi

Of these five Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax is the most severe and pose the greatest risk .Plasmodium falciparum infection is common in African and Asian continents while Plasmodium vivax infection is common in South American countries.

 

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

Symptoms and Signs seen in Malaria

In individuals who haven't developed immunity to malaria yet, complaints starts 10-15 days after bite from infected female Anopheles mosquito.

These symptoms include

- Fever

- Headache

- Chills

- Body weakness

- Bitter taste

- Feeling of unwell

- Deep yellowish urine colouration

 

In children the symptoms might be very severe and can lead to the following- Severe anemia ( reduced blood levels)

- Respiratory difficulty ( fast breathing, shortness of breath)

- metabolic and electrolyte imbalance

- Cerebral malaria manifesting as coma

- Multiple organ failure

Symptoms might be severe in adults as well especially the elderly

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Symptoms of malaria is less severe in people who have developed immunity to malaria

 

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

 

Who is at Risk ?

In 2017 almost the world's population were at risk of contracting malaria and most deaths occurred in Sub Saharan Africa.

Nonetheless some people are at increased risks than others and they include the following categories of people

  • • Infants
  • • Children under the ages of five
  • • Pregnant women
  • • People living with HIV/ AIDS
  • • Mobile travellers
  • • Non- immune individuals

``Elderly

National malaria control programmes should make sure to protect and treat these individuals at risk

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

Disease Burden

According to the world malaria report of November 2018

  • • There were about 219 million people affected by malaria in 2017
  • • Sub saharan Africa accountee for 92% of these cases
  • • Five countries accounts for more than half of these cases; Nigeria 25% , Congo DR 14% , Mozambique 5%,India 4% ,Uganda 4%
  • •. Children under the ages of five are mostly affected

 

Transmission of Malaria

- Malaria is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquito .

- The mosquito bites usually occur between evening times and daybreak

- Female Anopheles mosquito usually lay their eggs on fresh water, which hatch into larva and then into young mosquitoes. The female Anopheles mosquito needs to suck blood to nurture it's eggs

- To transmit malaria female Anopheles mosquito bites an infected person and takes up the blood containing the parasite into it's system. The parasite continue to develop in the mosquito and when the mosquito bites another person it injects the already developed parasite into this individual

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"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

 

Prevention of Malaria

Control of vectors is the most effective way of malaria prevention. This can be achieved through the following ways.

(1) Use of insecticide treated mosquito nets -this is one of the effective way of prevention. It is not expensive and it helps by providing a physical barrier to the vector coming in contact with it's prey

(2) By indoor and outdoor spraying using insecticides

(3) By clearing of bushes around the house

(4) By discarding empty cans that might retain water. This helps to eliminate breeding places for mosquitoes

(5) By prompt treatment of all infected individuals

 

Antimalarial Medications For Prevention

WHO recommends the following

  1. Travellers to endemic areas should start preventive therapy prior to traveling to the area to help suppress the blood stages of malaria
  2. Pregnant women should start Intermittent preventive therapy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine after the first trimester.
  3. Infants and children under the ages of five should be given sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria
  4. Seasonal treatment during the high transmission period with amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine should be instituted in the under-five.

 

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

 

Diagnosis and Treatment

World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all cases of suspected malaria cases should be confirmed using parasite based diagnostic tests. The test is available within thirty minutes or less

Treatment based on symptoms can be instituted when these tests are not available.

Recommended treatment for Plasmodium falciparum is artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT)

 

Vaccine For Malaria

WHO in collaboration with affected countries, GSK, PATH and other non profit organization works currently on developing a vaccine for malaria.

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These vaccines has been developed and the are effective in protecting against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in susceptible individuals especially in young children.

The vaccine was introduced in 2019 and is currently being administered in three pilot countries

 

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

 

QUESTION : WHY DOES INDIVIDUALS WITH "AS" GENOTYPE TOLERATE MALARIA BETTER THAN INDIVIDUALS WITH "AA" GENOTYPE ?

[: Answer : During it's life cycle in human being, Malaria parasite develops inside the red blood cells. For this development to progress normally conditions inside the red blood cells must be conducive enough.

In people with Genotype AA the condition in the red blood cells is very condusive so the malaria parasite completes it's development; more parasites are produced and released and they go on to affect other red blood cells

In people with Genotype AS the condition in the red blood cells is not conducive enough for further development of the malaria parasite so the following might occur either (1) the malaria parasite inside the red blood cells commits suicide and die or (2) the red blood cells rupture and release the incompletely developed parasites which later die

In Genotype AS otherwise known as sickle cell trait transport of oxygen is not efficient so most organisms like malaria parasite has difficulty reproducing normally

Aside this Genotype AS is not better than Genotype AA

One more thing people with Genotype AS are more susceptible to Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

 

"Malaria Medication / Malaria Treatment"

 

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