OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT, OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION &OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS

OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT, OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AND OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS

OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT, OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AND OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS

OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT, OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AND OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS

This articles examines "Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors. Read Below.

OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS

There are numerous factors that are associated with a higher of risk of a person developing Osteoporosis. Some patients of Osteoporosis have several risk factors while others have none. Some of these risk factors cannot be changed (Inherent). The non-changeable factors includes:

  • Possessing Small or thin bones
  • Being a female (woman), particularly during postmenopausal years
  • Being age 50 or even older
  • Having low level of estrogen hormone (starting from menopause or missing menstrual periods) in women or low level of testosterone hormone in men

Risk factors that can be changed includes:

  • Anorexia (bulimia)
  • Too much alcohol intake
  • Dietary deficiencies in calcium and Vit. D
  • Smoking
  • lack of exercise
  • Long term effect from certain drugs due to usage, these drugs includes Glucocorticoids and some antiseizure drugs (anticonvulsants)

The above are changeable Osteoporosis risk factors can be corrected positively by you to ensure Osteoporosis prevention

"Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors"

 

Medicines that may result to Bone loss (Osteoporosis causes)

There are drugs that can be harmful to bones, even if its intended to cure another medical condition. loss of bone is usually greater if you take medication in high dosage for a long period. Its prerogative to see a health care provider/personnel about the associated risks and benefits resulting from any of the medicines you take and how they could affect your bones, but the current treatment shouldn't be stopped or medication changed unless there is professional medical advice to do so. If there is need to take drugs that causes loss of bone it is important to work with a medical care provider so as to determine the minimum possible dosage that one can take to control the present symptoms.

Below are drugs that may cause loss of Bone :

  • Antiseizure drugs: some of them such as Dilantin or phenobarbital
  • Aluminium drugs that contains antacids
  • Cancer(Chemotherapeutic) drugs
  • Aromatase inhibitors which includes Arimidex, Aromasin and Femara
  • FK506(Tacrolimus) and Cyclosporine
  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) which includes Lupron and Zoladex
  • Lithium drugs
  • Heparin drugs
  • Methotrexate drugs
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception (Depo-Provera)
  • Steroids (glucocortoids) which includes cortisone and prednisone
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) which includes Lexapro, Prozac and Zoloft
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) which includes Nexium, Prevacid and Prilosec
  • Thiazolidines drugs which includes Actos and Avandia
  • Excessive Thyroid Hormones
  • Tamoxifen (premenopausal use)
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Other Osteoporosis causes may include:

  • Post menopausal status
  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Long-term corticosteroid use
  • Nutritional deficiency (malnutrition)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Alcoholism
  • Malabsorption of calcium
  • Disorders of thyroid and parathyroid gland (hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism)
  • Liver disease
  • Scurvy
  • Trauma

 

"Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors"

 

OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION

Statistically about 85-90% of adult bone is mass is acquired at 18 years in girls and 20 years in boys, developing and building well strong bones in childhood and adolescent age helps to prevent Osteoporosis in the future.

There are adoptive lifestyles that can help one to prevent cases of Osteoporosis, this includes:

  • Avoid smoking, not only that it is harmful to internal organs like the heart and lungs, smoking is not good for the bone, since those who smoke are likely to absorb very little calcium from the food they eat.
  • Avoiding excessive alcohol intake, people that takes a lot of alcohol have higher chances of bone loss and having broken bones due to poor diet and chances of falling
  • Adhering to a healthy diet which is nutritious and rich in calcium and vitamin is necessary to bone health
  • Participating in weight-bearing exercise physical activities that forces one to work against gravity, such as walking and hiking helps to strengthen the bones and muscles

Preventing Fractures by Preventing Falls (Osteoporosis Prevention)

It is important that a patient of osteoporosis tries as much as possible to avoid falls, which leads to broken bones

The following precautions should be taken to prevent falls when the patient is outside:

  • A cane or walker should be used to give stability
  • Put on rubber-soled shoes/slippers to help with traction
  • When sidewalks are slippery walk on grass
  • Kitty litter or salt should be carried along to throw on slippery sidewalks in bad weather

The following precautions should be taken to prevent falls when the patient is inside:

  • Put away things you could trip on in your house
  • Walk slow on wet floors
  • Skid proof backing carpet runners should be used at homes to prevent slipping
  • There should be enough light up in the house
  • keep flashlights with active batteries next to your bed
  • handrails and grab bars should be installed in the bathroom and other areas of the home to reduce slipping
  • Rubber bat math should be used in bathtub or shower
  • Put on low-heel shoes and don't walk in socks or stockings
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Other Varieties of Lifestyle precautions that can also help one to stay safer:

  • Wear glasses with latest prescriptions that can allow you to see well because an impaired vision can affect balance and can result to falling
  • Exercise well to keep thigh muscles strong and maintain stability
  • The doctor should be informed about any physical change experienced that affects patient's balance or gait
  • Note all medications that you take that could possibly cause drowsiness/dizziness, this includes sedatives, antidepressants and others
  • Communicate with your doctor and relatives about any chronic illness you have that affects mental or physical functioning

 

"Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors"

 

HEALTHY DIETS RECOMMENDED FOR OSTEPOROSIS PREVENTION

There are many diets that have positive effect on bone health, but two in particular are of utmost importance : Calcium and Vitamin D

  • Calcium

Lack of Calcium in the body in time results to the development of Osteoporosis. Research made already has shown that low intake of calcium is linked to low bone mass, constant bone loss and high rate of fractures

Throughout life time of a person the body needs different a mounts of calcium deposits. Calcium is needed most in the body during childhood and adolescent age because then the skeleton i growing rapidly. Also pregnant and nursing mothers also need high levels of calcium, even postmenopausal women and older men. As one increases in age the body starts becoming less efficient in absorbing calcium and other nutrients. So the older one is, the more likely one is to take treatment/medication for several health conditions, and the drugs used for this treatments can interfere with the calcium that is being absorbed in the body. Foods rich in calcium includes Almonds, Low-fat diary products which includes milk, cheese, yoghurt and ice-cream,

leafy and Dark green vegetables: Collard greens, spinach, broccoli; calcium-fortified foods e.g.: Orange juice, soymilk, cereals and bread. Calcium supplements are helpful if a person doesn't get enough calcium from the food consumed.

  • Vitamin D: It helps the body to absorb enough calcium from both food intake and supplements. It aids the muscles in movement, because the nerves need Vitamin D in order too carry messages from the body to the brain. The immune system also needs Vit. D in order to combat viruses and bacteria. The natural source where many people get Vit. D is from the sunlight, the body produces this vitamin when the skin is directly exposed to sunlight, But research has also shown that production of this vitamin reduces in elderly people and those that are house bound as well as in all people during winter/cold seasons. Foods that are rich in Vit. D includes: Liver, Saltwater fish and Egg yolks. There is a threshold of the amount of Vit. D required for everybody.

MANAGEMENT (OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT)

The goal of management is to control bone loss, prevent fractures and control pain.

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Measures include the following

  • Calcium supplements of 1000 to 1500gm daily to normal bone metabolism
  • Vitamin D supplement by spending 15minutes under the sun daily will enhance utilization of calcium thereby increasing bone density
  • Calcitonin is used to inhibit bone resorption (loss) by osteoclasts thereby showing down the decline in bone mass
  • Oestrogen within 3 years after menopause to decrease bone resorption
  • Alendronate inhibit bone resorption
  • Non Opioid analgesics such as acetaminnophen and application of heat to treat mild to moderate pain
  • Supportive devices such as back brace and possibly surgery to correct fractures are instituted when necessary

 

"Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors"

 

NURSING MANAGEMENT (OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT)

  • Adequate bed rest with firm mattress
  • Observe safety precautions such as keeping the side rails up on the patient's bed and moving the patient gently and carefully at all times to prevent fractures
  • Cover any breaks in the skin with clean or sterile dressings, care for pressure areas to prevent ulcers if patient is immobile
  • Assess bowel and bladder function since patient is prone to constipation and paralytic ileus if the vertebrae are involved
  • Increase protein, calcium and vitamin D intake to encourage bone formation
  • On discharge advice the family and patient on the use of high intake of foods rich in calcium, vitamin D, fibre and protein. Patent should be encouraged to perform range motion exercise daily. Patient should also be taught about the disease process and prevention of progression, advice should also be given to patient to avoid heavy lifting.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS

  • Impaired mobility
  • Activity intolerance
  • Pain

COMPLICATIONS

  • Fractures
  • Humped back (dowager's hump)
  • Loss of height

 

"Osteoporosis treatment, osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis risk factors"

 

 

 

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