STI TREATMENT (...Continued)
Testing for Syphilis
- A lot of tests are available for the accurate diagnosis of syphilis.
- Screening for syphilis must be done in all pregnant women as part of their antenatal care
Management of Syphilis
- This depends largely on the stage of the disease.
- All positive cases must be treated with approprite antibiotics.
- Pregnant women that are found positve must be treated to forestall untoward effects to the fetus.
- Treatment should also be procured for all sexual partners
- Additional treatments (eg surgery, physical therapy) might benefit those with tertiary syphilis.
- It is important to note that some testing methods will be positive for life even after successful treatments.
- This is transmitted by a bacterium known as Hemophilus ducreyi
- It is transmitted via
- Sexual contact
- Autoinoculation to non sexual sites such as the eye and skin
- Time from the entry of the microorganism into the body to the manifestation of symptoms is 1 day to 2 weeks
- The disease begins as a painful boil at the site of entry of the microorganism. The boil ruptures with time to form a painful ulcer.
- Chancroid is not a lethal disease; even if left untreated , the genital lesions may resolve spontaneously within 1 to 3 months
- Clinic diagnosis is usually enough, however ulcer scrapings might be investigated for identification of Hemophilus ducreyi. PCR testing is also helpful
- Administration of appropriate antibiotics will suffice.
- Cleaning and dressing is necessary for large ulcers.
- Surgery might be helpful in extreme cases.
- Sexual contacts are tested as with all STIs.
- Prevention is via the general preventive measures for all STIs
- Chlamydial infections is caused by a bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
- It can be transmitted by anal, vaginal or oral sex.
- If left untreated, a child can acquire it during passage through the mother`s birth canal.
- Chlamydia is called the “silent” disease/ epidemic because three quarters of women do not know they are infected.
- Symptoms occur within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.
- There are different serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and affect specific parts of the body
- Serotype A,B and C affects the face and eyes. It can cause chronic infection and leads to blindness if not well treated.
- Serotype D-K cause the genital infections
- Serotype L1-L3 also cause genital infection but usually affect men.
Symptoms of Chlamydial infection
Ø Burning or painful sensation during urination
Ø Discharge from the penis
Ø Pain in the testis and/or epididymis
Ø Pain in the anus
Ø Swelling around the groin
Ø Inability to have children
Ø Most men might have not complaints at all
Ø Painful urination
Ø Burning sensation during urination
Ø Painful sexual intercourse
Ø Vaginal discharge
Ø Inability to conceive
Ø Can presents as a complication
NB: Complications of Chlamydia infection are varied in women, These include ctopic pregnancy, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pains
Ø Some women might have no symptoms at all.
In the fetus and the children
Ø Eye discharge
Ø Eye redness
- This is achieved via microscopy , culture and sensitivity of swabs from the vagina (women), urethra (men), cervix, and urine.
- Nuclei acid amplification testing techniques like PCR,SDA can be done on swab specimens.
- Chlamydial infection should be screened for in all pregnant women as part of their antenatal care.
- Appropriate antibiotics is the main stay of treatment
- Eye disease (Trachoma) is prevented by adopting WHO strategy of SAFE
S – Surgery for deformed eye
A- Antibiotics use
F- Facial cleanliness
E- Environmental improvement programmes which include provision of good source of water
- Safer sexual methods, treating all positive pregnant women, use of condoms, treatment of all sexual contacts and general health education and promotion are some of the preventive measures.
- Genital herpes is an STI caused by Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2).
- Most cases are caused by HSV-2
- Symptoms includes may include painful genital ulcers, painful urination, tender swellings in the groin. Fever, malaise, weakness of the body and headache are not uncommon.
- Treatment is usually by use of antiviral medications which help to shorten the cause of the disease
- Good nutrition and treatment of co-infections is paramount.