Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of one or more paranasal sinus. It is usually precipitated by congestion from viral, bacterial and fungal upper respiratory infection or nasal allergy. See Causes of Sinusitis pain and Sinusitis How to treat below.


Types of Sinusitis

  1. Acute Sinusitis: In this type the symptoms last up to four weeks.
  2. Sub-Acute Sinusitis: Here the symptoms last 4-12 weeks.
  3. Chronic Sinusitis: The symptoms last for up to 3 months.

Causes of Sinusitis

This includes various microbes e.g.

  • Virus.
  • Bacteria.
  • and Fungi.

The Predisposing or Risk Factors of Sinusitis

These are the factors that could increase your chances of having sinusitis, they include:

  • When your cilia or small hairs does not function well.
  • If you have cold or allergies.
  • In Cases of Deviated Nasal Septum.
  • Presence of Nasal Polyps that may possibly block the opening of your sinuses
  • If you have Allergic Rhinitis
  • If you are suffering from Cystic Fibrosis
  • In a case of immotile cilia syndrome
  • When you change altitude for example when you are flying
  • Large adenoids
  • smoking
  • Tooth infections
  • Weakened immune system for HIV/AIDS patients or Chemotherapy cases

"Sinusitis how to treat"

The Symptoms of Sinusitis


  • First of all , When you experience pain around your eyes, face, and tooth ache ("sinusitis pain")
  • Consistent coughing, which is often worse at nights
  • Fatigue
  • Anosmia ( This is a medical condition which involves sense of smell)
  • Bad breath
  • Nasal congestion and discharge
  • Sore throat

Diagnostic Evaluation of Sinusitis

These includes Diagnostic strategies that your doctor would adopt. This are positive tests to confirm if you have sinusitis:

  • You should see a doctor for Sinus x-rays, CT scans and transillumination. This will show your air-fluid level if you are having acute sinusitis. (Thickening of the sinus mucous membrane and anatomic obstruction patterns in chronic sinusitis).
  • You are to see a doctor also for Culture and sensitivity test through Autral puncture and lavage. This will enable the identification of infectious organisms.
  • Visit the hospital or see a doctor for Sinus and Nasal Endoscopy
  • The Doctor/hospital will examine you for Ciliary Function i.e. Ciliary Function Test
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"Sinusitis How to Treat"

Below are effective strategies on how to manage Sinusitis:

  • Use Topical Decongestant Spray or Drops or systemic decongestant for Mucosal Shrinkage.
  • Also apply Topical Nasal Corticostenoids in order to relieve the symptoms that you are experiencing.
  • Make use of active and effective antibiotics. This includes Penicillin, Cephalosporin and bactrim; they are used to combat invading organism in your body
  • Use Analgesics/Anti inflammatory drugs. This includes Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen , they will help relieve Sinusitis pain that you are experiencing.
  • Your doctor may also recommend 'Surgical repair of deviated septum and nasal polyps' for you. This will prevent the condition from returning again.

The Nursing Care involved in treating Sinusitis ("Sinusitis How to treat")

The following Nursing Care should be employed either by the patient or by the Doctor/Nurse or Medical personnel. (In Nursing a Sinusitis patient).

  • Most importantly You should apply warm, moist wash cloth to your face
  • Use copius fluid in order to loosen the mucus
  • Use humidifier as recommended by your doctor
  • Keep your head elevated to keep swelling down
  • You should carry out nasal saline irrigation
  • Adopt relaxation-techniques and deep-breathing exercise if you are anxious
  • You should be careful in the use of analgesic in order to avoid the depression of your respiratory system
  • To ensure effective treatment you should avoid flying and temperature extremes
  • Avoid environmental irritants such as smoke
  • Expose yourself to adequate air so as to reduce fever
  • You should avoid swimming

Complications that could result from Sinusitis

This includes:

  • Extension of the infection to orbital areas and your eyelids
  • It could also result to Osteomyelitis (frontal bone)
  • Menigitis and
  • Brain Abscess
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How to save yourself "sinusitis pain"

Prevention of Sinusitis

When you adopt the following strategies , you are likely to reduce your chances of suffering from Sinusitis

  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Get influenza Vaccine every year
  • Reduce stress
  • Wash your hands often
  • Avoid smoke and pollutants
  • Drink plenty of fluid
  • Treat any surfacing allergies quickly and appropriately


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