STI TREATMENT (...Continued)


Testing for Syphilis

  • A lot of tests are available for the accurate diagnosis of syphilis.
  • Screening for syphilis must be done in all pregnant women as part of their antenatal care

Management of Syphilis

  • This depends largely on the stage of the disease.
  • All positive cases must be treated with approprite antibiotics.
  • Pregnant women that are found positve must be treated to forestall untoward effects to the fetus.
  • Treatment should also be procured for all sexual partners
  • Additional treatments (eg surgery, physical therapy) might benefit those with tertiary syphilis.
  • It is important to note that some testing methods will be positive for life even after successful treatments.




Key Facts

  • This is transmitted by a bacterium known as Hemophilus ducreyi
  • It is transmitted via

- Sexual contact

- Autoinoculation to non sexual sites such as the eye and skin

  • Time from the entry of the microorganism into the body to the manifestation of symptoms is 1 day to 2 weeks
  • The disease begins as a painful boil at the site of entry of the microorganism. The boil ruptures with time to form a painful ulcer.
  • Chancroid is not a lethal disease; even if left untreated , the genital lesions may resolve spontaneously within 1 to 3 months





  • Clinic diagnosis is usually enough, however ulcer scrapings might be investigated for identification of Hemophilus ducreyi. PCR testing is also helpful
  • Administration of appropriate antibiotics will suffice.
  • Cleaning and dressing is necessary for large ulcers.
  • Surgery might be helpful in extreme cases.
  • Sexual contacts are tested as with all STIs.
  • Prevention is via the general preventive measures for all STIs




Key Facts

  • Chlamydial infections is caused by a bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • It can be transmitted by anal, vaginal or oral sex.
  • If left untreated, a child can acquire it during passage through the mother`s birth canal.
  • Chlamydia is called the “silent” disease/ epidemic because three quarters of women do not know they are infected.
  • Symptoms occur within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.
  • There are different serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and affect specific parts of the body

- Serotype A,B and C affects the face and eyes. It can cause chronic infection and leads to blindness if not well treated.

- Serotype D-K cause the genital infections

- Serotype L1-L3 also cause genital infection but usually affect men.




Symptoms of Chlamydial infection

In Men

Ø Burning or painful sensation during urination

Ø Discharge from the penis

Ø Pain in the testis and/or epididymis

Ø Pain in the anus

Ø Swelling around the groin

Ø Fever

Ø Inability to have children

Ø Most men might have not complaints at all

In women

Ø Painful urination

Ø Burning sensation during urination

Ø Painful sexual intercourse

Ø Vaginal discharge

Ø Inability to conceive

Ø Can presents as a complication

NB: Complications of Chlamydia infection are varied in women, These include ctopic pregnancy, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pains

Ø Some women might have no symptoms at all.

In the fetus and the children

Ø Miscarriage

Ø Prematurity

Ø Eye discharge

Ø Eye redness





  • This is achieved via microscopy , culture and sensitivity of swabs from the vagina (women), urethra (men), cervix, and urine.
  • Nuclei acid amplification testing techniques like PCR,SDA can be done on swab specimens.



  • Chlamydial infection should be screened for in all pregnant women as part of their antenatal care.
  • Appropriate antibiotics is the main stay of treatment
  • Eye disease (Trachoma) is prevented by adopting WHO strategy of SAFE

S – Surgery for deformed eye

A- Antibiotics use

F- Facial cleanliness

E- Environmental improvement programmes which include provision of good source of water

  • Safer sexual methods, treating all positive pregnant women, use of condoms, treatment of all sexual contacts and general health education and promotion are some of the preventive measures.





Key Facts

  • Genital herpes is an STI caused by Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2).
  • Most cases are caused by HSV-2
  • Symptoms includes may include painful genital ulcers, painful urination, tender swellings in the groin. Fever, malaise, weakness of the body and headache are not uncommon.
  • Treatment is usually by use of antiviral medications which help to shorten the cause of the disease
  • Good nutrition and treatment of co-infections is paramount.




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