STROKE MEDICATION AND STROKE NURSING DIAGNOSIS
"Stroke Medication And Stroke Nursing Diagnosis"
STROKE SYMPTOMS (CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS)
- It depends on the affected artery
- Hemiplegia/paralysis Sensory defect e.g. loss of tactile and auditory stimuli
- Aphasia ; speech defect
- Homonuymous hemianopia
- Unilateral neglect of paralyzed side
- Bladder impairment (urinary incontinence)
- Respiratory impairment (possible)
- Cranial nerve impairment
- Dysphagia, impaired tongue movement
- Dyslexia (reading problem)
- Dysgraphia (inability to write)
- Slurred speech
- Increased intracranial pressure
Stroke Nursing Diagnosis/Diagnostic Evaluation
- MRI to evaluate lesion location and size
- EEG will detect reduced electrical activity in area of infaction
- Cerebral Angiography details disruption or displacement of the cerebral circulation by occlusion or haemorrhage
- Carotoid angiograpy reveals a narrowing of the carotoid artery
- Cerebral blood flow studies measure blood flow to the brain and help detect abnormalities
- Lumber puncture
Medical management for CVA commonly includes physical rehabilitation dietary and drug regimen to help reduce the risk factors and measures to help the patient adopt to specific deficits, such as speech impairment and paralysis.
"Stroke Medication And Stroke Nursing Diagnosis"
Stroke Medication - Pharmacotherapy (Drugs)
- Anticonvulsant e.g. Phenobarbital too treat seizure or spasm
- Calcium channel blocks to reduce blood pressure and prevent cerebral vaso-spasm
- Stool softener such as docusate sodium to avoid straining which increases ICP
- Diuretics to reduce cerebral Oedema
- Corticosteroid e.g. dexamethasone to minimize cerebral Oedema
- Aspirin and antihypertensive
- Anticoagulant such as heparin, warfarin to reduce risk of thrombotic stroke
Depending on the CVA cause and extent, the patient may also undergo surgery. A craniotomy may be done to remove an hematoma, atherosclerotic plague from the inner arterial wall
Stroke Preventive Mediation (Stroke Medication)
It is important that everyone understands the risk factors of stroke, follow professional medical recommendations and adopt a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent stroke. The following measures will help prevent stroke or TIA. Stroke prevention strategies are almost the same strategies to prevent heart diseases, these healthy lifestyle recommendations includes
- Controlling high blood pressure (hypertension): It is one of the important things a person has to do to reduce chances of having stroke. Regular exercise, managing stress and maintaining a healthy weight and also reducing sodium(salt) and alcohol intake to keep the blood pressure in check is also recommended.
- Reducing the Cholesterol and saturated fat levels in diet: less intake of fat and cholesterol most especially saturated fats and trans fat is likely to reduce the plaque in the arteries
- Stopping The use of tobacco: Smoking increases the risk stroke for smokers
- Controlling diabetes through diet, exercise and weight control
- Maintaining a healthy weight: overweight contributes to stroke risk factors such as High BP, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
- Eating more of fruits and vegetables also eat Mediterranean diet (olive oil, nuts fruits, whole grains, vegetables)
- Regular exercise: jogging, walking, swimming regularly
- Low alcohol consumption: Alcohol can either be a risk factor if taken excessively (causing high bp, ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic stroke) but it can be a protective measure if consumed lesser such as one drink a day: it may help prevent ischemic strike and decrease in the blood's clotting tendency
- Avoid illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines, they cause TIA or stroke. Cocaine reduces blood flow and can narrow the arteries (see Stroke nursing diagnosis)
Continued "Stroke Medication And Stroke Nursing Diagnosis"
Preventive Drugs(Stroke Medication)
The doctor may recommend the following medication a person who gas experienced Ischemic stroke of TIA, this will in turn reduce the risk of having another stroke. They include:
- Anti platelet drugs: The platelets are responsible for blood clotting but anti platelet drugs make these cells less sticky and less likely to clot. Aspirin is the most commonly used anti-platelet drug (medication), The doctor may also prescribe Aggrenox ( a combinational low-dosage) and the anti-platelet drug Dipyridamole in order to reduce the risk of blood clotting. If the aspirin does not prevent the TIA or stroke or if the person cannot take aspirin the doctor may also prescribe another anti-platelet drug such as clopidogrel (Plavix)
- Anticoagulants: These drugs includes heparin and warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven). They reduce blood clotting. hepaarin acts fast and it can be used over a short period of time in the hospital while warfaring acts slowly and can be used for a longer term/
The warfaring acts as a powerful and effective blood-thining drug, so a person will need to take it exactly as prescribed or directed and watch out for side effects. the doctor actually prescribe these drugs if the patient has a certain blood-clotting disorder(s),certain abnormality of the arteries, abnormal heart rhythm or other associated heart problems.
SEE "Stroke Medication And Stroke Nursing Diagnosis"
Nursing Management (Stroke Nursing Diagnosis And Management)
- Admission: ensure air way patencry and suction as order if patient is in coma. Position patient on his/her side to drain secretions oxygen therapy and hydration as ordered. Adequate rest to conserve energy.
- Observation: Monitor vital signs routinely especially blood pressure monitor for increased ICP, asses for bladder and bowel function and voluntary and involuntary movement
- Physical care: Encourage range of motion exercise to help maintain strength/contractures. Active and passive exercises increases venous return decreasing the risk of thrombophlebitis. Turn patient 2-hourly o decrease risk of pressure sore. Carry out oral care, bed bath and care of pressure areas, and other ADLs to decrease the risk of complications resulting from mobility. Allow rest period when planning care.
- Nutrition/Diet: Provide balanced diet and assist the patient with eating if necessary. Allow sufficient time for meals, place food on the unaffected part of the mouth. Provide food that are easy to handle. If in coma or not conscious, fluid and food are provided through IV or nasogastric tube
- Mobility: Assist patient with hemiplegia in movement by standing on the affected side. teach patient how to use walker, cane, or wheel chair as appropriate
- Communication: Approach and teach the patient as an adult. Do not assume that the client who does not respond verbally cannot hear. Do not use a raised voice when addressing the patient, speak softly and allow adequate time for the patient to respond, use short simple statement .
"Stroke Medication And Stroke Nursing Diagnosis" examined