Epilepsy is the condition of the brain that is characterized by recurrent seizures.

What are Seizures(Seizure disorder)? Seizures are paroxysmal events that is associated with abnormal electrical discharges of neurons in the brain. This discharge may trigger a convulsive movement (Seizure symptoms), an interruption of sensation. An alteration in the level of consciousness or a combination of these symptoms. Epilepsy does not affect your intelligence.

Causes/Risk Factors of Epilepsy

Below are the causes that may cause Epilepsy. The cause is basically idiopathic but they you could relate them to the following

  • If you suffered prenatal injuries
  • When you have Metabolic abnormalities e.g. hypoglycemia, hypocalcaemia and hyponatremia
  • Brain tumor
  • Infections
  • If you have suffered traumatic injuries
  • If you have ingested toxins
  • Drug withdrawal state e.g. alcohol
  • If you have had cerebrovascular accident
  • It could be Hereditary
  • High Grade Fever can cause you epilepsy
  • Exogenous factors are also inclusive e.g. sound and light


"Seizure disorder and Seizure Symptoms"

Types of Seizure Disorder

  1. Partial Seizures and
  2. Generalized Seizures

Partial Seizure Disorder include the following

  • Jacksonian Seizure: If you are suffering from this type if partial seizure you will experience stiffening of the neck or jerking in one extremity and tingling sensation.
  • Sensory seizure: The symptoms you may experience in this type includes hallucination, flashing lights You will also experience dejavu and smelling of foul odour, tingling sensation
  • Complex Partial: The symptoms you will experience in this type includes purposeless behaviors e.g. picking at cloths, aimless wandering lip-smacking.
  • Secondary Generalized Partial Seizure: This is partial onset that could lead to generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
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Generalized Seizure Disorder

In this type of seizure you will experience generalized abnormality within the brain. This includes the following

  • Absence or petit-mal: This is common in children. It begins with a brief loss of consciousness nd last between one to ten seconds. The child becomes quiet and may blink, stare blankly, roll his eyes or move his lips
  • Grand-mal: This presents as a genralized tonic-seizure that often begin with loud cry before you lose consciousness and fall to the ground. It could last between two and five minutes
  • Primary Generalized Seizures: This is a primary generalized seizure that occurs when electrical discharges begin in both hemispheres of your brain at the same time.
  • Myoclonic seizures: This type of seizure is characterised by brief, involuntary spasms of the tongue or of the face arms or legs. They are commonly experienced in the morning.

The Pathophysiology of Seizure Disorder

In cases of epilepsy or seizure symptoms (seizure attack ) a group of neurons in your body may lose different stimulation. (i.e. the ability of your neurons to transmit impulse from the periphery toward the central nervous system) and function as an epileptogenic focus. These neurons are hypersensitive and easily activated. In response to changes in your cellular environment. The neurons becomes hyperactive and fire abnormally (this is due to altered electronic balance at the neural level). Abnormal firing may be activated in this case by hyperthermia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoxia or repeated sensory stimulation.

The intensity of the seizure discharge spread to adjacent brain areas. The discharges becomes less frequent until they stop. Depending on the type of seizure you are experiencing, injury may result from a fall, anoxia due to airway occlusion by the tongue, aspiration of vomit or traumatic injury. A continuous seizure state known as status. Epilepticus can cause respiratory distress and even death.

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"Seizure disorder and Seizure Symptoms"

Clinical Manifestation of Epilepsy (Seizure Symptoms)

The seizure symptoms you are to experience depends on the type of seizure disorder

  • Stiffening or jerking in one extremity if you are down with jerksonia seizure.
  • Hallucination, flashing lights, tingling sensations, vertigo dejavu and smelling foul odour in a case of sensory seizure.
  • Aimless wandering, purposeless behaviour in a case of complex partial
  • Unconsciousness in secondary generalized and myoclonic
  • Stiffened body, unconsciouness tongue biting, incontinence, laboured breathing, apnea headache, fatigue and cyanosis are the symptoms you will experience in a case of genralized tonic-clonic or grand-mal seizure

"Seizure disorder and Seizure Symptoms"

Diagnostic Evaluation

These are Medical scans with sophiscated machines to detect/evaluate if you have seizure or if you are likely to suffer from such.

  • EEG (ElectroEncephaloGram): This will reveal altered electrical activities in your brain
  • CT Scan and MRI will provide readings of your brain and may indicate abnormalities in your internal structures
  • Skull X-ray
  • Brain Scan and cerebral angiograpgy will reveal abnormalities (if any) in your brain.

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